Skip to main content

Table 3 Engineering-science integration models

From: Integrating engineering in K-12 science education: spelling out the pedagogical, epistemological, and methodological arguments

 New design in engineeringRe-design in engineering
User-centered engineering designDesign-build-test (DBT)Engineering science experimentationDesign optimization
Heavier on synthesis  
Contextualized (requires problem scoping)  
Heavier on analysis  
Scientific (requires experiments)  
Requires new design, that is new to the context  
Process starts with a sub-optimal artifact, process, or system  
Number and type of criteriaMultiple, complex criteriaMultiple, simple criteriaTypically single criterionTypically two criteria