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Table 4 Research questions to guide teaching and learning

From: Integrating engineering in K-12 science education: spelling out the pedagogical, epistemological, and methodological arguments

FramingResearch questions
Pedagogy-Epistemology• How do curricula that reflect the integrative nature of engineering help students make connections to science concepts?
• Do students who engage in engineering projects develop stronger scientific and technological literacy? And can they sustain such competencies over time?
Pedagogy- Methodology• Do students recognize the design process as a set of strategies that are adaptable to different types of problem solving?
• What are the different affordances associated with different engineering-science integration approaches? For example, do projects with an optimization model promote deeper understanding of science concepts than those adopting a design-build-test model?
Do teachers have relevant support systems to use different models in the classroom? Do school demographics predict the use of specific teaching methods?
Epistemology- Methodology• Do design projects used in classrooms reflect a range of engineering problems (optimization, experimentation, etc) and the adaptability of the design process in solving these problems?
• What barriers and affordances are there in facilitating student designer transitions between concrete design decisions and scientific core ideas?