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Table 3 Interactions and major findings in remote science undergraduate laboratories

From: Understanding interactions in face-to-face and remote undergraduate science laboratories: a literature review

SubjectType of InteractionsMajor FindingsReferences
PhysicsS-S, S-I interaction via video and text chatA combination of the simulated and remote laboratory provided more rich collaboration between learners, as well as between learner and instructors.(Scheucher et al., 2009)
Science and engineeringS-S, S-I, S-E interactionsThe frequency of S-S and S-I interactions decreased(Cooper & Ferreira, 2009)
N/AS-S and S-I interactionsThe Collaborative Support system increased student engagement and the number of completed assignments.(Luis de la Torre et al., 2013)
ScienceS-I InteractionsStudents were more engaged in remote laboratories watching the real live video.(Sauter et al., 2013)
Chemical EngineeringS-S, S-I and S-E interactionsThe Cooperative Weblab increased higher student engagement levels.(Le Roux et al., 2009)
Chemical EngineeringS-S InteractionsStudents preferred three members in a group.(Botero et al., 2016)