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Table 2 Descriptive statistics for types of evidence in human evolution lesson plans (N = 86)

From: A content analysis of pre-college lesson plans on human evolution

Evidence For Teaching Human Evolution (Categories and Subcategories) n Category Percentage from Category Frequency
(n = 176)
Sub-category Percent Within Parent Category (Totals) Percentages of Categories and Sub-categories within Total
(n = 426)
Hominid-based Fossils 54 30.7 12.7
 Skull Comparison (Brain or Jaw Size) 31   37.8 7.3
 Skeletal Comparison (Bipedalism) 27   32.9 6.3
 Other Fossils (Footprints/Molds/Casts) 24   29.7 5.6
Common Ancestry 22 12.5 5.2
 Homology or Analogy (to extant non-primates) 5   17.2 1.2
 Cladistics 7   24.1 1.6
 Vestigial Structures 1   3.4 0.23
 Comparative Embryology 1   3.4 0.23
 Comparative Anatomy (to extant primates) 15   51.7 3.5
aBiochemical 34 19.3 8.0
 Chromosomes/DNA/RNA Comparison 18   32.1 4.2
 Evolutionary Genetics (Heredity) 16   28.6 3.8
 Phylogenetics (Phylogeny) 16   28.6 3.8
 Hybridization or Interbreeding 3   5.4 0.70
 Molecular Clocks 2   3.6 0.47
aAge (Geology) 16 9.1 3.8
 Relative Age: Biostratigraphy & Biochronology 11   55 2.6
 Absolute Age: Radiometric Dating 3   15 0.70
 Geologic Time / Scale 5   25 1.2
Biogeography 11 6.25 2.6
 Regional Hypotheses 11   78.6 2.6
 Multiregional hypotheses 2   14.3 0.47
Hominid Behavior 24 13.6 5.6
 Tools / Weapons: Hunting/Cooking 17   65.4 4.0
 Art or Language: Drawings/Music/Jewelry/Clothing 10   38.5 2.3
 Agricultural Revolution: Food Storage/Domestication/Settlements 3   11.5 0.70
Affective Processes: Social Bonds, Feelings, Religion 2   7.7 0.47
 Behavioral Similarities to other extant Primates 3   11.5 0.70
Social Science Perspectives 15 8.5 3.5
 Nature of Science 13   76.5 3.1
 SocioScientific Issues (History) 3   17.6 0.70
 SocioScientific Issues (Race) 1   5.9 0.23
  1. aIndicates categories classified as a source of direct evidence for evolution