Akiha, K., Brigham, E., Couch, B. A., Lewin, J., Stains, M., Stetzer, M. R., … Smith, M. K. (2018). What types of instructional shifts do students experience? Investigating active learning in science, technology, engineering, and math classes across key transition points from middle school to the university level. Frontiers in Education, 2, 68. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2017.00068.
Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers. Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Ballen, C. J., Wieman, C., Salehi, S., Searle, J. B., & Zamudio, K. R. (2017). Enhancing diversity in undergraduate science: Self-efficacy drives performance gains with active learning. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 16(4), ar56. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.16-12-0344.
Barr, D. A., Gonzalez, M. E., & Wanat, S. F. (2008). The leaky pipeline: Factors associated with early decline in interest in premedical studies among underrepresented minority undergraduate students. Academic Medicine, 83(5), 503–511. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e31816bda16.
Bonwell, C. C., & Eison, J. A. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports. ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, The George Washington University, One Dupont Circle, Suite 630, Washington, DC 20036–1183.
Brame, C. (2016). Active learning. Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching.
Bransford, J. D., & Schwartz, D. L. (1999). Chapter 3: Rethinking transfer: A simple proposal with multiple implications. Review of Research in Education, 24(1), 61–100. https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X024001061.
Brazeal, K. R., Brown, T. L., & Couch, B. A. (2016). Characterizing student perceptions of and buy-in toward common formative assessment techniques. CBE Life Sciences Education, 15(4), ar73. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.16-03-0133.
Brewer, C. A., & Smith, D. (2011). Vision and change in undergraduate biology education: A call to action. American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Brigati, J. (2018). Student attitudes toward active learning vs. lecture in cell biology instruction. The American Biology Teacher, 80(8), 584–591. https://doi.org/10.1525/abt.2018.80.8.584.
Brown, T. L., Brazeal, K. R., & Couch, B. A. (2017). First-year and non-first-year student expectations regarding in-class and out-of-class learning activities in introductory biology †. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v18i1.1241.
Brownell, S. E., & Tanner, K. D. (2012). Barriers to faculty pedagogical change: Lack of training, time, incentives, and...tensions with professional identity? CBE Life Sciences Education, 11(4), 339–346. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.12-09-0163.
Carpenter, S. K., Witherby, A. E., & Tauber, S. K. (2020). On students’ (Mis) judgments of learning and teaching effectiveness. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 9(2), 137–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2019.12.009.
Cavanagh, A. J., Aragón, O. R., Chen, X., Couch, B. A., Durham, M. F., Bobrownicki, A., … Ledbetter, M. L. (2016). Student buy-in to active learning in a college science course. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 15(4), ar76. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.16-07-0212.
Cavanagh, A. J., Chen, X., Bathgate, M., Frederick, J., Hanauer, D. I., & Graham, M. J. (2018). Trust, growth mindset, and student commitment to active learning in a college science course. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 17(1), ar10. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.17-06-0107.
Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 37–46. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316446002000104.
Cooper, K. M., Ashley, M., & Brownell, S. E. (2017). Using expectancy value theory as a framework to reduce student resistance to active learning: A proof of concept. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, 18(2). https://doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v18i2.1289.
Cotner, S. H., Fall, B. A., Wick, S. M., Walker, J. D., & Baepler, P. M. (2008). Rapid feedback assessment methods: Can we improve engagement and preparation for exams in large-enrollment courses? Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17(5), 437–443. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-008-9112-8.
Council, N. R. (2003). BIO2010: Transforming undergraduate Education for future research biologists. The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/10497.
Crossgrove, K., & Curran, K. L. (2008). Using clickers in nonmajors- and majors-level biology courses: Student opinion, learning, and long-term retention of course material. CBE Life Sciences Education, 7(1), 146–154. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.07-08-0060.
DeMonbrun, M., Finelli, C. J., Prince, M., Borrego, M., Shekhar, P., Henderson, C., & Waters, C. (2017). Creating an instrument to measure student response to instructional practices. Journal of Engineering Education, 106(2), 273–298. https://doi.org/10.1002/jee.20162.
Deslauriers, L., McCarty, L. S., Miller, K., Callaghan, K., & Kestin, G. (2019). Measuring actual learning versus feeling of learning in response to being actively engaged in the classroom. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(39), 19251–19257. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821936116.
Dewey, J. (1966). Democracy and education (1916). In J. A. Boydston (Ed.), The Middle Works of John Dewey, (vol. 9, pp. 1899–1924).
Eberlein, T., Kampmeier, J., Minderhout, V., Moog, R. S., Platt, T., Varma-Nelson, P., & White, H. B. (2008). Pedagogies of engagement in science. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 36(4), 262–273. https://doi.org/10.1002/bmb.20204.
England, B. J., Brigati, J. R., & Schussler, E. E. (2017). Student anxiety in introductory biology classrooms: Perceptions about active learning and persistence in the major. PLoS One, 12(8), e0182506. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182506.
Felder, R. M., Woods, D. R., Stice, J. E., & Rugarcia, A. (2000). The future of engineering education II. Teaching methods that work. Chemical Engineering Education, 34(1), 26–39.
Fink, L. D. (2013). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. Wiley.
Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(23), 8410–8415. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1319030111.
Glynn, S. M., Brickman, P., Armstrong, N., & Taasoobshirazi, G. (2011). Science motivation questionnaire II: Validation with science majors and nonscience majors. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(10), 1159–1176. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20442.
Gormally, C., Sullivan, C. S., & Szeinbaum, N. (2016). Uncovering barriers to teaching assistants (TAs) implementing inquiry teaching: Inconsistent facilitation techniques, student resistance, and reluctance to share control over learning with students. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, 17(2), 215–224. https://doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v17i2.1038.
Graham, M. J., Frederick, J., Byars-Winston, A., Hunter, A. B., & Handelsman, J. (2013). Increasing persistence of college students in STEM. Science, 341(6153), 1455–1456. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1240487.
Haak, D. C., HilleRisLambers, J., Pitre, E., & Freeman, S. (2008). Increased structure and active learning reduce the achievement gap in introductory biology. Science, 332(6034), 1213–1216 36(4):262–73. Retrieved from http://science.sciencemag.org/content/332/6034/1213.abstract.
Handelsman, J., Ebert-May, D., & Beichner, R. (2004). Scientific teaching, (April). Retrieved from http://science.sciencemag.org/content/304/5670/521.short
Henderson, C., Khan, R., & Dancy, M. (2018). Will my student evaluations decrease if I adopt an active learning instructional strategy? American Journal of Physics, 86(12), 934–942. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.5065907.
Jones, M. H., Estell, D. B., Alexander, J. M., Jones, M. H., Estell, D. B., & Alexander, J. M. (2008). Friends, classmates, and self-regulated learning: Discussions with peers inside and outside the classroom. Metacognition Learning, 3(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-007-9007-8.
Jones, N. L., Peiffer, A. M., Lambros, A., Guthold, M., Johnson, A. D., Tytell, M., … Eldridge, J. C. (2010). Developing a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum for professionalism and scientific integrity training for biomedical graduate students. Journal of Medical Ethics, 36(10), 614–619. https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.2009.035220.
Kaddoura, M. (2013). Think pair share : A teaching learning strategy to enhance students ’ critical thinking. Education Research Quarterly, 36(4), 3–24.
Lopez, R. E., & Gross, N. A. (2008). Active learning for advanced students: The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling graduate summer school. Advances in Space Research, 42(11), 1864–1868. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ASR.2007.06.056.
MacFarland, T. W., & Yates, J. M. (2016). Mann–whitney u test. In Introduction to nonparametric statistics for the biological sciences using R (pp. 103-132). Springer, Cham.
Machemer, P. L., & Crawford, P. (2007). Student perceptions of active learning in a large cross-disciplinary classroom. Active Learning in Higher Education, 8(1), 9–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787407074008.
Madson, L., Trafimow, D., & Gray, T. (2017). Faculty members’ attitudes predict adoption of interactive engagement methods. The Journal of Faculty Development, 31(Number 3), 39–50 (12). Retrieved from https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/nfp/jfd/2017/00000031/00000003/art00005#Supp.
Mauri, M., Elli, T., Caviglia, G., Uboldi, G., & Azzi, M. (2017). RAWGraphs: A visualisation platform to create open outputs. In Proceedings of the 12th Biannual Conference on Italian SIGCHI Chapter, (p. 28). ACM.
Mayer, R. E., Stull, A., Deleeuw, K., Almeroth, K., Bimber, B., Chun, D., … Zhang, H. (2008). Clickers in college classrooms: Fostering learning with questioning methods in large lecture classes q. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(1), 51–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.04.002.
Mcmillan, C., Loads, D., & Mcqueen, H. A. (2018). From students to scientists: The impact of interactive engagement in lectures. New Directions in the Teaching of Physical Sciences, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.29311/ndtps.v0i13.2425.
Michael, J. (2007). Faculty perceptions about barriers to active learning. College Teaching, 55(2), 42–47. https://doi.org/10.3200/CTCH.55.2.42-47.
Miller, C. J., & Metz, M. J. (2014). A comparison of professional-level faculty and student perceptions of active learning: Its current use, effectiveness, and barriers. Advances in Physiology Education, 38(3), 246–252. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00014.2014.
Olson, S., & Riordan, D. G. (2012). Engage to excel: Producing one million additional college graduates with degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Report to the President. Executive Office of the President. https://doi.org/10.1080/10668921003609210.
Owens, D. C., Sadler, T. D., Barlow, A. T., & Smith-Walters, C. (2017). Student motivation from and resistance to active learning rooted in essential science practices. Research in Science Education, 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-017-9688-1.
Patrick, L. (2020). Faculty and student perceptions of active learning. In J. J. Mintzes, & E. M. Walter (Eds.), Active learning in college science-the case for evidence-based practice. Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-33600-4_55.
Patrick, L. E., Howell, L. A., & Wischusen, W. (2016). Perceptions of active learning between faculty and undergraduates: Differing views among departments. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations and Research, 17, 55–63.
Patrick, L., Howell, L. A., & Wischusen, E. W. (2018). Roles matter: Graduate student perceptions of active learning in the STEM courses they take and those they teach. BioRxiv, 502518. https://doi.org/10.1101/502518.
Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93(3), 223–231. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2004.tb00809.x.
Saldaña, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Sage.
Seidel, S. B., & Tanner, K. D. (2013). “What if students revolt?”—Considering student resistance: Origins, options, and opportunities for investigation. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 12(4), 586–595. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe-13-09-0190.
Shin, J. C., & Harman, G. (2009). New challenges for higher education: Global and Asia-Pacific perspectives. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-009-9011-6.
Silverthorn, D. U., Thorn, P. M., & Svinicki, M. D. (2006). It’s difficult to change the way we teach: Lessons from the integrative themes in physiology curriculum module project. Advances in Physiology Education, 30(4), 204–214. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00064.2006.
Smith, C. V., & Cardaciotto, L. (2012). Is active learning like broccoli? Student perceptions of active learning in large lecture classes. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 11(1), 53-61.
Smith, M. K., Wood, W. B., Adams, W. K., Wieman, C., Knight, J. K., Guild, N., & Su, T. T. (2009). Why peer discussion improves student performance on in-class concept questions. Science, 323(5910), 122-124.
Stains, M., Harshman, J., Barker, M. K., Chasteen, S. V., Cole, R., DeChenne-Peters, S. E., … Young, A. M. (2018). Anatomy of STEM teaching in north American universities. Science, 359(6383), 1468 LP–1461470 Retrieved from http://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6383/1468.abstract.
Stroebe, W. (2020). Basic and applied social psychology student evaluations of teaching encourages poor teaching and contributes to grade Inflation: A theoretical and empirical analysis. https://doi.org/10.1080/01973533.2020.1756817.
Tanner, K. D. (2013). Structure matters: Twenty-one teaching strategies to promote student engagement and cultivate classroom equity. CBE Life Sciences Education, 12(3), 322–331. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.13-06-0115.
Team, R. C. (2013). R: A language and environment for statistical computing.
Theobald, E. J., Hill, M. J., Tran, E., Agrawal, S., Nicole Arroyo, E., Behling, S., … Freeman, S. (2020). Active learning narrows achievement gaps for underrepresented students in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and math. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(12), 6476–6483. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1916903117.
Tune, J. D., Sturek, M., & Basile, D. P. (2013). Flipped classroom model improves graduate student performance in cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal physiology. Advances in Physiology Education, 37(4), 316–320. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00091.2013.
Uttl, B., White, C. A., & Gonzalez, D. W. (2017). Meta-analysis of faculty’s teaching effectiveness: Student evaluation of teaching ratings and student learning are not related. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 54, 22–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2016.08.007.
Walker, J. D., Cotner, S. H., Baepler, P. M., & Decker, M. D. (2008). Article a delicate balance: integrating active learning into a large lecture course background and course design. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.08.
Wang, G., & Williamson, A. (2020). Course evaluation scores: Valid measures for teaching effectiveness or rewards for lenient grading? Teaching in Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2020.1722992.
Wickham, H. (2016). ggplot2: Elegant graphics for data analysis. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24277-4.
Witherspoon, E. B., Vincent-Ruz, P., & Schunn, C. D. (2019). When making the grade Isn’t enough: The gendered nature of premed science course attrition. Educational Researcher, 48(4), 193–204. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X19840331.
Xie, Y., Fang, M., & Shauman, K. (2015). STEM Education. Annual Review of Sociology, 41(1), 331–357. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-071312-145659.