Skip to main content

Table 2 Comparing arguments for integrating science and engineering

From: Integrating engineering in K-12 science education: spelling out the pedagogical, epistemological, and methodological arguments

 Pedagogical argumentEpistemological argumentMethodological argument
Supporting ArgumentsPedagogical Power: Engineering helps make abstract science concepts concrete. Engineering is the application of science.Epistemological Pluralism: Engineering is inherently interdisciplinary; the integration of science and engineering (as well as other disciplines) is a natural part of problem setting.Methodological Flexibility: Students need to develop abilities to solve problems, and engineering design provides strategies to do so.
Counter Arguments“Engineering” as a disciplinary core idea and a disciplinary practice may be left out.Scientific and mathematical concepts can differ based on the solutions students pursue. Requires comfort in managing complexity.Core ideas in science and mathematics concepts may be left out due to a focus on process.