Skip to main content

Table 1 Seven types of evidence (categories, codes) and examples (subcategories, sub-codes) in teaching for conceptual change in human evolution within pre-college science

From: A content analysis of pre-college lesson plans on human evolution

Categories (Codes) Subcategories (Sub-codes)
Age (Geology) Relative Age: Biostratigraphy & Biochronology
Absolute Age: Radiometric Dating
Geologic Time/Scale
Behavior Tool or Weapon Making (Hunting or Cooking)
Art or Language (Drawing, Music, Jewelry, or Clothing)
Agricultural Revolution: Food Storage/Domestication/Settlements
Behavioral similarities to non-human extant Primates
Affective Processes (Social Bonds, Feelings, Religion, or Ceremonial Burial)
Biochemical Evidence Chromosome/DNA/RNA Comparison
Evolutionary Genetics
Phylogenetics
Hybridization & Interbreeding
Molecular Clocks
Biogeography Regional Hypotheses
Multiregional Hypotheses
Common Ancestry Comparative Anatomy (structural similarities) to extant primates
Homology or Analogy (structural similarities) to extant non-primates
Comparative Embryology
Cladistics and Phylogeny
Vestigial Structures
Hominid-based Fossils Skull Comparison (brain or jaw size)
Skeletal Comparisons (bipedalism)
Other Fossils (including footprints, molds and casts)
Social Science Perspectives Nature of Science SocioScientific Issues (History and Race)