Skip to main content

Table 1 Seven types of evidence (categories, codes) and examples (subcategories, sub-codes) in teaching for conceptual change in human evolution within pre-college science

From: A content analysis of pre-college lesson plans on human evolution

Categories (Codes)

Subcategories (Sub-codes)

Age (Geology)

Relative Age: Biostratigraphy & Biochronology

Absolute Age: Radiometric Dating

Geologic Time/Scale


Tool or Weapon Making (Hunting or Cooking)

Art or Language (Drawing, Music, Jewelry, or Clothing)

Agricultural Revolution: Food Storage/Domestication/Settlements

Behavioral similarities to non-human extant Primates

Affective Processes (Social Bonds, Feelings, Religion, or Ceremonial Burial)

Biochemical Evidence

Chromosome/DNA/RNA Comparison

Evolutionary Genetics


Hybridization & Interbreeding

Molecular Clocks


Regional Hypotheses

Multiregional Hypotheses

Common Ancestry

Comparative Anatomy (structural similarities) to extant primates

Homology or Analogy (structural similarities) to extant non-primates

Comparative Embryology

Cladistics and Phylogeny

Vestigial Structures

Hominid-based Fossils

Skull Comparison (brain or jaw size)

Skeletal Comparisons (bipedalism)

Other Fossils (including footprints, molds and casts)

Social Science Perspectives

Nature of Science SocioScientific Issues (History and Race)